The Members of the Independent Commission of Experts
Switzerland – Second World War

(Ex-members of the ICE)

 

Jean-François Bergier, Chairman
Historian

Jean-François Bergier was born in 1931 in Lausanne. University studies in Lausanne, Munich, Paris (Ecoles des Chartes) and Oxford. 1963–1969 Professor of Economic History in Geneva; from 1969 on, professorial chair of History at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich (Institute of History); 19761978 visiting professor at the University of Paris-Sorbonne; honorary president of the International Association of Economic History; chairman of the Scientific Committee of the F. Datini International Institute of Economic History (Prato, Italy) and of the International Society for Historical Alpine Research. Corresponding member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences (Paris) and of the Belgian Royal Academy. Jean-François Bergier's primary areas of concentration have been the economic history of Switzerland and Europe between the 13th and the 18th centuries, as well as the history of the industrialization. 

Major publications:

  • Genève et l'économie européenne de la Renaissance, Paris 1963.
  • Histoire économique de la Suisse, Zürich 1982/Lausanne 1983.
  • Guillaume Tell, Paris 1988 (translated into German and Italian).
  • Europe et les Suisses, Genève 1992, 19972 (German translation underway).
  • Pour une histoire des Alpes, Moyen Age et Temps modernes, London 1997.




Wladyslaw Bartoszewski
Historian

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski was born in 1922 in Warsaw. From 1940 to 1941 interned in Auschwitz, subsequently fought with the Resistance. Following the War, political prisoner of Stalinism for six and a half years. Upon release, editor and publisher, professor of Contemporary History at the University of Lublin (Poland) and of Political Science at the Universities of Munich, Eichstätt and Augsburg. In 1963, elevated by the Institute for Remembrance of the Holocaust to the ranks of the « Righteous amongst the Peoples of the World »; 1991 honorary citizenship conferred by the State of Israel. 19901994 Polish Ambassador to Austria; 1995 Polish Foreign Minister; as of 1997, member of the senate of the Republic of Poland. 

Major publications:

  • Aus der Geschichte lernen?, München 1986.
  • Das Warschauer Ghetto – wie es wirklich war. Zeugenbericht eines Christen, Frankfurt am Main 1983, 1986(2).
  • Uns eint vergossenes Blut. Juden und Polen in der Zeit der 'Endlösung', Frankfurt am Main 1987.
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau, Freiburg, Basel, Wien 1989 (together with Elie Wiesel, Cardinal Jean Marie Lustiger and Rita Süssmuth).
  • Es lohnt sich anständig zu sein. Meine Erinnerungen. Mit der Rede zum 8. Mai 1995, Freiburg, Basel, Wien 1996.




Saul Friedländer
Historian

Saul Friedländer was born in 1932 in Prague. During the Second World War, he fled to France where he was hidden and survived the War. He holds professorships of History in Israel and in the USA; his historical research is concentrated on the Second World War and on International Relations. 

Major publications:

  • Auftakt zum Untergang. Hitler und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 193941, Stuttgart 1965.
  • Pius XII und das Dritte Reich. Eine Dokumentation, Hamburg 1965.
  • Wenn die Erinnerung kommt, Stuttgart 1979.
  • Kitsch und Tod. Der Widerschein des Nazismus, München 1984.
  • Das Dritte Reich und die Juden. Die Jahre der Verfolgung 19331939, München 1998.



Harold James
Historian

Harold James was born in 1956. He studied at the University of Cambridge. At present, professor of History at Princeton University (New Jersey, USA). Has lived in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland; in 1996 visiting professor at the Institute for International Studies of the University of Geneva. 

Major publications:

  • The German Slump: Politics and Economics 19241936, OUP 1986.
  • A German Identity, Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1989.
  • International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods, OUP 1996.
  • Die Deutsche Bank 18701945, Beck Verlag 1995 (co-author).



Helen B. Junz
(Member of the Commission since February 2001)

Economist

Helen B. Junz is a US national. Education in the Netherlands and US.
From 1962 to 1979 senior U.S. Government positions at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Council of Economic Advisers and the Department of the Treasury. From 1982 to 1994 she worked for the International Monetary Fund. Before that and afterwards she occupied various private sector positions.
In 1996 she established her own economic consultancy service in London. Among her major projects that subsequently followed was a study for the Independent Committee of Eminent Persons (ICEP), known as  «Volcker Commitee» , estimating the wealth of the Jewish populations before 1939 in countries dominated by Nazi-Germany during World War II. From 1999 to 2000 she was retained as Director of Research on financial and economic assets by the Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Era Assets in the United States and also as economic advisor to the International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC). 

Major publications:

  • Publication of numerous articles in professional economic journals.



Georg Kreis
Historian

Georg Kreis was born in 1943 in Basel. He studied at the University of Basel. Professor of Modern History at the University of Basel (International Relations and Nationality Issues) and Director of the European Institute in Basel. He heads the Swiss Federal Commission against Racism and is editor of several specialized journals.

Major publications:

  • "Entartete" Kunst für Basel. Die Herausforderung von 1939, Basel 1990.
  • Die Schweiz in der Geschichte. 1700 bis heute, Zürich 1997 (French version Zürich 1997).
  • Vier Debatten und wenig Dissens (Zur Historiographie über die Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg), in: Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte 47, 1997, pp. 451476.
  • Neutralitätsrecht und Neutralitätspolitik. Der Stellenwert der Neutralität in der aktuellen Debatte um die Rolle der Schweiz während des Zweiten Weltkriegs, in: Fluchtgelder, Raubgut und nachrichtenlose Vermögen, published by the Swiss Federal Archives, Dossier 6, Bern 1997, pp. 5964.
  • Die schweizerische Flüchtlingspolitik der Jahre 19331945, in: Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte 47, 1997, pp. 552579.



Jacques Picard
Historian

Jacques Picard was born in 1952 in Basel. He studied History at the Universities of Berne and Fribourg. Research fellowship in the USA. Post-graduate studies in Corporate management, Psychology and Communication. Teacher of History and Culture at the Bernese Vocational-Technical School and from 19941997, Headmaster at the School's Department for Engineer Training in Bienne. Since autumn 2001 Professor at Basel University and Head of the Department of Jewish Studies.

Major publications:

  • Die Schweiz und die Juden 19331945, Zürich 1994 (Dissertation).
  • Swiss made oder: Uhrenfabrikanten im Räderwerk von Politik und technischem Fortschritt, Allmende 36/37, Freiburg 1993.
  • Vom Zagreber zum Zürcher "Ornament", Wandel und Exil einer Kulturbewegung 19311951, in: Exilforschung, Internationales Jahrbuch 10, München 1992.
  • On the Ambivalence of Being Neutral, Switzerland and Swiss Jewry Facing the Rise and Fall of the Nazi State, Washington, D.C. 1998.
  • Die Vermögen rassisch, religiös und politisch Verfolgter in der Schweiz und ihre Ablösung von 1946 bis 1973, Bern 1993 (English translation Zürich 1993).



Jakob Tanner
Historian

Jakob Tanner was born in 1950 in Root (Canton Lucerne). Studiedat the University of Zurich. Various stays abroad (Paris, London). 1996/97 substitute professor at the University of Bielefeld (Germany). As of 1997 professor of General History and Swiss History at the University of Zurich. Editor and publisher of several specialized journals.

Major publications:

  • Bundeshaushalt, Währung und Kriegswirtschaft. Eine finanzsoziologische Analyse der Schweiz zwischen 1938–1953, Zürich 1986 (Dissertation).
  • Banken und Kredit in der Schweiz/Banques et credit en Suisse 18501930, Zürich 1993 (published together with Youssef Cassis).
  • Finanzwirtschaftliche Probleme der Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg und deren Folgen für die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung nach 1945, in: Probleme der Finanzgeschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, published by Dietmar Petzina, Berlin 1989, pp. 7798.
  • Property rights, Innovationsdynamik und Marktmacht. Zur Bedeutung des schweizerischen Patent- und Markenschutzes für die Entwicklung der chemisch-pharmazeutischen Industrie (19071928), in: Die neue Schweiz? Eine Gesellschaft zwischen Integration und Polarisierung (19101930), published by Andreas Ernst und Erich Wigger, Zürich 1996, pp. 273303.
  • Die internationalen Finanzbeziehungen der Schweiz zwischen 1931 und 1950, in: Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte 4, 1997, pp. 492519.
  • "Bankenmacht": politischer Popanz, antisemitischer Stereotyp oder analytische Kategorie?, in: Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte, Nr. 1, 1998, pp. 1934.



Daniel Thürer
(Member of the Commission since April 2000)
Lawyer

Daniel Thürer was born in 1945 in St Gall. Law school at Zurich University. Further studies at the Universities of Geneva, St Gall and Cambridge (LL.M.). Since 1983 professor of International, European, Constitutional and Administrative Law at the University of Zurich. Visiting Research Professor at the Harvard Law School and Stanford School of Law. 1991 Founding President of the Swiss Section of the International Commission of Jurists. Member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 1992 Founding Director of the “Europa Institut Zürich”. Member of the Board of the Swiss Association of International Law. 1996 Chairman of the Legal Commission of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Member of the Board of Editors of three scientific journals.

Major publications:

  • Das Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker – Mit einem Exkurs zur Jurafrage, Bern 1976 (Dissertation).
  • Bund und Gemeinden – Eine rechtsvergleichende Untersuchung zu den unmittelbaren Beziehungen zwischen Bund und Gemeinden in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und der Schweiz (Beiträge des Max-Planck-Instituts zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Band 90), Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/London/Paris/Tokyo 1986 (Habilitation)..
  • Perspektive Schweiz – Übergreifendes Verfassungsdenken als Herausforderung, Zürich 1998.

Various publications in the field of international, European and public law.




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Myrtha Welti, Secretary General
Law degree; political consultant

Married to a career diplomat; one son, two daughters.
Myrtha Welti was born in 1945 in Chur. From 1965 on, she studied at the Universities of Zurich and Geneva, earned degrees in Literature and Law and was employed as an assistant at the Law Institute of the University of Zurich. In 1981 she joined the Secretariat General of the political party SVP (Schweizerische Volkspartei), remaining until 1991 as legal and political consultant. This engagement was interrupted by a four-year stay in London, England, from 1985 to 1989. From 1992 to 1994 she held the position of Deputy Secretary General of the SVP, before becoming the Party’s Secretary General in 1994. In 1996, she left the position for a two-year stay in Bonn, Germany, and moved back to Switzerland with her family in 1998. Since then she has been professionally active as a free-lance political consultant.

Mandates i.a.:

  • Vice-president of the foundation Science and City («Science et Cité»)
  • Vice-president of the supervisory board of the gfs-Research Institute
  • Member of the supervisory board of the University Hospital of Berne, Insel.
  • Member of the managing board of the alliance F, Swiss National Council of Women
  • Member of the committee of the Swiss Association for Foreign Affairs
  • Member of the Federal Commission for Foreigners